There the expanding frontier caught up with the Koks again. Diamonds were discovered near Hopetown and later in Kimberley. Claiming that it was for Griqua protection, Griqualand West was annexed as a British crown colony. Amid a welter of land claims and counterclaims, the Griqua community there began to disintegrate. As a result, Kok’s grandson, Adam II, trekked with his people southeast to the mission station of Philippolis.
For the Griquas under Adam Kok II, Philippolis never quite felt permanent. In 1837, Adam III took over the captaincy, only to find that the Griqua area under his jurisdiction – between the Orange and Modder rivers and from Philippolis to Bethulie – was directly in the path of the Boers advancing from the south.
Constant triangular negotiations between Griquas, Boers and the Colony led to complicated divisions. But the end result was the same as at Griquatown. The British claimed sovereignty, then cancelled it and farm after farm ended in Boer hands.
In 1861, Adam Kok III ceded his area to the Free State government for ₤4,000 following a promise of land rights in an area known as Nomansland across the Drakensberg. The trek to Nomansland began later that year with around 3,000 Griqua and their horses, 300 wagons, about 20,000 head of cattle and 200,000 sheep.
Stock losses to marauding Basuto and Bushmen in this area were huge and many rich men who left Philippolis were paupers by the time they descended the Berg. They hacked roads which often had to be rebuilt after rain and they had to place small wheels on the upside of wagons to keep them even on the precipitous slopes.
At different parts of the route, for many years afterwards, the wrecks of wagons could be seen in gorges. Days stretched to weeks, and weeks to months. When they finally reached Ongeluksnek Pass the sight was both spectacular and daunting. Before them, looking east, were lofty spurs and deep valleys – wild-looking country – falling away from the mighty range. More than 1,000m below was Nomansland.
By the time the Griquas descended the Berg they had lost about 90% of their stock. Nomansland is sourveld and many beasts refused to eat it and died. They founded Kokstad, where they began building a church and proper houses.
Gradually, after many years, the Kokstad Griquas began to prosper. Then a series of events occurred that were to precipitate their downfall. In 1874, a British official, Sir Henry Barkly, rode into town and announced that Nomansland was under Crown supervision. A year later, Adam III fell off his wagon and was killed. Then a company of Frontier Mounted Police under a Captain Blythe arrived and searched people’s houses for “hostile weapons”. His high-handed administration led to a brief armed rebellion which was crushed by Colonial troops.
Shortly afterwards, Blythe declared Nomansland to be a British Protectorate. Leaderless and dispirited, people sold their farms or again lost them to trickery or simple annexation. By the early 19th century, Nomansland had passed out of Griqua hands.
There was a brief rally in the early 20th century. A man named Andries le Fleur, who was related to the Koks, began agitating for Griqua land rights and was jailed for eight years. After his release, he led a trek southwards to a place named Kranshoek near Plettenberg Bay where the descendants of the Kok family live today – about 3,000km from where their trek had begun in Piketberg. I met Chief Samuel Jansen there and asked him: “How do the young people here feel about their Griqua origins?”
“Mostly they’re not interested,” he said. “They’re just coloureds now. And tell me, what’s a coloured?”
Acknowledgement: This piece was penned by Don Pinnock and published in the Daily Maverick on 21st April, 2021.
Sent to MPSA by Keith Pickersgill.
- We take you through days 2 & 3 of the recent Ben 10 Eco Challenge. Click to listen.
PASS OF THE WEEK
We have just published a new video series on the relatively unknown Paardepoort (P0413), which consists of three lovely poorts interconnected by plateaux to form a 16 km meander through lovely scenery between the Darlington Dam and Kirkwood in the Eastern Cape..
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TAIL PIECE: "The best way to remember yiour wife's birthday is to forget it once"